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Renewable and non-renewable energy sources remain the two fronts for meeting global emergent energy demand. Renewable energy sources such as crude oil, in meeting energy needs, is a function of new hydrocarbon discoveries and improving the recovery of existing oil fields. However, new crude oil discoveries are made at a decreasing rate; likewise, existing fields are at a declining phase with conventional recovery techniques not being able to produce as much as two-thirds of the oil in place. In complementing existing oil recovery techniques, research into the use of nanotechnology has emerged as a potential alternative for tertiary oil recovery scheme. Despite the promising results, there has not been any reported large-scale field application of nanotechnology in the oil and gas industry except for some small-scale field trials. In this paper, a detailed review of developments on nano-enhanced oil recovery (Nano-EOR) and its attendant challenges are presented. Furthermore, key recommendations were given for future research on Nano-EOR. While the adoption of new technologies has its associated risks, the future prospects of Nano-EOR remains very high.READ MORE