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Material Properties Guide

Select the material(s) of your choice, from the listing below, to view properties and solvent compatibility.


 

316 Stainless Steel

316 Stainless Steel is one of the most popular manufacturing materials currently being used in chromatography applications. It offers tremendous physical strength as well as the best chemical resistance of all of the 300-series stainless steels. Because of the metallic nature of this material, it is best to compare the chemical being used with a database listing to determine if any interaction is suspected.

 

Temperature Range up to 250 °C
Thread Strength Excellent
Oxygen Permeability N/A
pH Range 1 - 14
Sterilization Techniques gamma irradiation; ethylene oxide; thermal
Autoclavable? Y

 

316 Stainless Steel Extended Properties


Physical Methods Units  
UNS - - S31600
Tensile (ksi) min - - 75
Yield (ksi) min - - 30
Elongation min - - 40% in 2"
Hardness (Brinell) max - - 217
Hardness (Rockwell B) max - - 95
       
Chemical Elements Methods Units  
(C) Carbon, max -   0.080
(Mn) Manganese, max -   2.000
(P) Phosphorus, max -   0.045
(Si) Silicon -   1.00
(Ni) Nickel     10.00/14.00
(Cr) Chromium     16.00/18.00
(Mo) Molybdenum     2.0 - 3.0
Titanium -   N/A

Delrin® (Polyoxymethylene)

Delrin

Delrin® is a rugged polymer that serves as an excellent choice for long-term mechanical stability for products such as fittings and threaded adapters. It is important to note that Delrin, while being strong mechanically, cannot tolerate to be in the presence of acidic or basic solutions for long periods of time, as the polymer will degrade. It is best to use Delrin with neutral pH aqueous solutions or organic solutions for guaranteed best performance.

 

Temperature Range up to 60 °C
Thread Strength Excellent
Oxygen Permeability N/A
pH Range 6 to 8
Sterilization Techniques  
Autoclavable? Y

 

Delrin (Polyoxymethylene) Extended Properties

General   Comments Units  
Density   ASTM D792 g/cc 1.42
Melt Flow   1.05kg/190 °C g/10 min 1
Water Absorption 24 hour ASTM D570    
Moisture Absorption at Equilibrium 50% RH ASTM D570 % 0.22
Water Absorption at Saturation Immersion ASTM D570/ ISO 62 % 0.9
Hardness, Rockwell M   ASTM D785 - 94
Hardness, Rockwell R   ASTM D785 - 120
         
Mechanical   Comments Units  
Tensile Strength Ultimate ASTM D638 MPa(psi) 69(10,008)
Elongation break ASTM D638 % 75
Modulus of Elasticity GPa ASTM D638 406 ksi 2.8
Flexural Modulus GPa ASTM D790 421 ksi 2.9
Flexural YieldStrength   ASTM D790 MPa(psi) 99
Izod Impact Strength J/cm ASTM D256 2.3ft-lb/in 1.23
  Unnotched, J/cm no break ASTM D256 1,871ft-lb/in 999
Izod Impact Low Temp Notched, J/cm at -40 °C ASTM D256 1.8ft-lb/in 0.96
Tensile Impact Strength kJ/m2 ASTM D1822 170ft-lb/in2 358
Compressive Yield Strength   ASTM D695 MPa(psi) 124(17,985)
Shear Strength   ASTM D732 MPa(psi) 66(9,573)
Fatigue Strength Flexural fatigue endurance limit, 50% RH, ASTM D672 MPa(psi) 32(4,641)
Fatigue Strength Flexural fatigue endurance limit, 50% RH, 1E+6 cycles ASTM D672 MPa(psi) 32(4,641)
Poissons Ratio   -   0.35
Coefficient of Friction Dynamic vs. carbon steel, 50mm/s (2in/s) 2MPa   0.35
         
Thermal   Comments Units  
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion linear 20 °C
linear 100 °C
µm/m- °C
µm/m- °C
60µin/in- °F
83µin/in- °F
122
149
Deflection Temperature at 0.46 MPa, °C
at 1.8 MPa, °C
ASTM D648
ASTM D648
336 °F
257 °F
169
125
Melting Point °C °C ASTM D3418 347 °F 175
Maximum Service Temperature Deflection Temp at 1.8 MPa - 257 °F 125
Thermal Conductivity W/m-K - 2.8BTU-in/hr-ft2- °F 0.4
Flammability, UL94 (5=V-0;4=V-1;3=V-2;1=HB) UL94 HB 1(HB)
         
Electrical   Comments Units  
Electrical Resistivity   ASTM D257 ohm-cm 1E+15
Dielectric Constant at 1MHz ASTM D150 - 3.7
Dielectric Strength, kV/mm 2.3mm (90 mils); Short Time ASTM D149 500 kV/in 19.7
Dissipation Factor at 1 MHz ASTM D150 - 0.005
Arc Resistance   ASTM D495 sec 220

FEP

FEP

FEP is a nice, melt-processed alternative to PTFE. FEP exhibits many similar properties to the more familiar PTFE, while being melt-processable, allowing for a lower gas permeability and improved optical clarity.

 

Temperature Range up to 50 °C
Thread Strength Good
Oxygen Permeability 748cc / 100in2 * 24h * atm / mil @ 25 °C
pH Range 0 - 14
Sterilization Techniques Ethylene oxide, thermal
Autoclavable? Y

 

FEP Extended Properties

General   ASTM Test Method Units  
Water Absorption 24 hr. ASTM D570 % 0.004
Weather and Chemical Resistance   - - outstanding
Limiting Oxygen Index   ASTM D2863 % 93
         
Mechanical   ASTM Test Method Units  
Tensile Strength 23 °C (73 °F) ASTM D2116 MPa(psi) 23(3,400)
Specific Gravity   ASTM D792 - 2.13-2.17
Ultimate Elongation 23 °C (73 °F) ASTM D2116 % 300
Flexural Modulus 23 °C (73 °F) ASTM D790 MPa(psi) 586(90,000)
Impact Strength 23 °C (73 °F) ASTM D256 J/m(ft-lb/in) 586(90,000)
Hardness Durometer   ASTM D2240 Shore D 56
Comprehensive Strength   ASTM D695 MPa(psi) 21(3,100)
Linear Coefficient of Expansion 0-100 °C
32-212 °F
-
-
mm/mm/ °C
in/in/ °F
13.5 x 10-5
7.5 x 10-5
         
Thermal   ASTM Test Method Units  
Nominal Melting Point   DTA-E168 °C (°F) 255-265(491-510)
Flow Rate   ASTM D2116 g/10 min 7
Upper Service Temperature   UL746 °C (°F) 204(400)
         
Electrical   ASTM Test Method Units  
Dielectric Strength 0.25 mm (0.010 in) ASTM D149 kV/mm (V/mil) 80(2,000)
Dielectric Constant 1 MHz, 23 °C(73 °F) ASTM D1531 - 2.02
Dissipation Factor 1 MHz, 23 °C(73 °F) ASTM D1531 - 0.0007
Volume Resistivity   ASTM D257 Tohm-m (ohm-cm) >103 (1017)
Arc Resistance   ASTM D495 seconds No Track

Halar®

Halar (ECTFE)

Halar® (ETCFE) is a chemical relative to PTFE, sharing its excellent chemical resistance properties. There are only a few chemicals that react with Halar, including tetrahydrofuran (THF) and pyridine. Several chemicals will have reduced resistance with elevated temperatures, please see the chemical compatibility section for more information.

 

Temperature Range up to 50 °C
Thread Strength N/A
Oxygen Permeability 25 cc / 100in2 * 24h * atm / mil @ 25 °C
pH Range 1 - 14
Sterilization Techniques Gamma irradiation; thermal
Autoclavable? Y

 

Halar Extended Properties

General   Comments Units  
Density   ASTM D792 g/cc 1.68
Melt Flow   1.05kg/190 °C g/10 min 2
Water Absorption 24 hour ASTM D570   0.10
Moisture Absorption at Equilibrium 50% RH ASTM D570 % <0.01
Hardness,
Shore D
  ASTM D2240 - 75
Hardness, Rockwell R   ASTM D785 - 90
         
Mechanical   Comments Units  
Tensile Strength Yield ASTM D638 MPa(psi) 30(4,300)
Tensile Strength Break ASTM D638 MPa(psi) 54(7,800)
Elongation Yield ASTM D638 % 5
Elongation Break ASTM D638 % 250
Modulus of Elasticity   ASTM D638 GPa(ksi) 1.6(240)
Flexural Modulus   ASTM D790 GPa(ksi) 1.7(245)
Flexural Yield Strength   ASTM D790 MPa(psi) 47(6,800)
Izod Impact Strength   ASTM D256 J/cm No break
Izod Impact Low Temp Notched, at -40 °C ASTM D256 J/m(ftlb/in) 207(2.0)
Coefficient of Friction Dynamic vs. carbon steel, 50mm/s (2in/s) ASTM D1894   0.2
         
Thermal   Comments Units  
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion linear 20 °C   µin/in- °F 56
Deflection Temperature at 1.8 MPa ASTM D648 °C(°F) 63(145)
Melting Point °C   ASTM D3418 °C(°F) 240(464)
Maximum Service Temperature Deflection Temp at 1.8 MPa - °C(°F) 148(300)
Thermal Conductivity   - (W/m-K)BTU-in/hr-ft2- °F 1.05(1.09)
Flammability UL-94 @3.1 mm UL94 Class V-0
         
Electrical   Comments Units  
Electrical Resistivity   ASTM D257 ohm-cm 5.5E+16
Dielectric Constant at 1MHz ASTM D150 - 2.57
Dielectric Strength, kV/mm 3.2mm (90 mils); Short Time ASTM D149 Volts/mil(kV/mm) 350(14)
Dissipation Factor at 1 MHz ASTM D150 - 0.013
Arc Resistance   ASTM D495 sec 50

PCTFE (PolyChloroTriFluoroEthylene)

PCTFE

Chemicals which interact with PCTFE polymer are not pH dependent; rather, interaction is more determined by other physical properties of the chemical(s) in question. In general, only THF and a few halogenated solvents will react with this polymer. DMSO.

 

Temperature Range up to 80 °C
Thread Strength Good
Oxygen Permeability 12cc / 100in2 * 24h * atm / mil @ 25 °C
pH Range 0 - 14
Sterilization Techniques gamma irradiation; ethylene oxide; thermal
Autoclavable? Y

 

PCTFE (PolyChloroTriFluoroEthylene) Extended Properties

General   ASTM or UL Test Units  
Water Absorption 24 Hour ASTM D570 % <0.01
Density   ASTM D792
ASTM D792
lb/in3
lb/in3
0.076
2.1
         
Mechanical   ASTM or UL Test Units  
Tensile Strength   ASTM D638 psi 5,700
Tensile Modulus   ASTM D638 psi 207,000
Tensile Elongation at break ASTM D638 % 150
Flexural Strength   ASTM D790 psi 8,500
Flexural Modulus   ASTM D790 psi 180,000
Compressive Strength   ASTM D695 psi 5,500
Compressive Modulus   ASTM D696 psi 180,000
Hardness Shore D ASTM D785 - D75-80
IZOD Notched Impact PTM55010 ft-lb/in 5
         
Thermal   ASTM or UL Test Units  
Melting Point °C   ASTM D3418 °C (°F) 212(415)
Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion   ASTM D696 x10-5in/in/ °F 7.0
Heat Deflection Temp at 264 psi ASTM D648 °C(°F) 75(167)
Thermal Conductivity   C177
C177
x10-4cal/cm-sec- °C
BTU-in/ft2-hr- °F
3.44
1.0
Maximum Operating Temperature   - °C(°F) 177(305)
         
Electrical   ASTM or UL Test Units  
Dielectric Strength short time, 1/8" thick ASTM D149 V/mil 500
Dielectric Constant at 1 MHz ASTM D150 - -
Dissipation Factor at 1 MHz ASTM D150 - -
Volume Resistivity at 50% RH ASTM D257 ohm-cm 1018

PEEK (Polyetheretherketone)

PEEK

Chemicals which interact with PEEK polymer are not pH dependent; rather, interaction is more determined by other physical properties of the chemical(s) in question. Not recommended for use with nitric acid; sulfuric acid; halogenated acids, such as hydrofluoric, hydrobromic, and hydroiodic acids (hydrochloric acid is approved for most applications); and pure halogenated gases. Additionally, due to a swelling effect, be cautious in using the following solvents with PEEK tubing: methylene chloride, THF, and DMSO.

 

Temperature Range up to 100 °C (tubing); up to 125 °C (fittings)
Thread Strength Excellent
Oxygen Permeability 14cc / 100in2 * 24h * atm / mil @ 25 °C
pH Range 0 - 14
Sterilization Techniques gamma irradiation; ethylene oxide; thermal
Autoclavable? Y

 

PEEK Extended Properties

General   Methods Units  
Relative Density (Crystalline)
(Amorphous)
ASTM D792
ASTM D792
-
-
1.30
1.26
Typical Level of Crystallinity   - % 30-35
Mold Shrinkage   - % 1.0-1.8
Water Absorption 24 hr. @ 73 °F
Equilibrium @ 73 °F
ASTM D570
ISO R62A
%
%
0.50
0.50
         
Mechanical   Methods Units  
Tensile Strength @ 73 °F (yield)
@ 482 °F (yield)
ASTM D638 (5mm/min)
ASTM D638 (5mm/min)
psi
psi
14,000
1,750
Elongation at Break @ 73 °F ASTM D638 (5mm/min) % >50
Elongation at Yield @ 73 °F ASTM D638 (5mm/min) % 4.9
Flexural Modulus: @ 73 °F
@ 248 °F
@ 482 °F
ASTM D790
ASTM D790
ASTM D790
psi
psi
psi
594,000
580,100
43,500
Flexural Strength @ 73 °F
@ 248 °F
@ 482 °F
ASTM D790
ASTM D790
ASTM D790
psi
psi
psi
24,650
14,500
1,800
IZOD Impact Strength @ 73 °F
Notched
Unnotched
ASTM D256 ft.-lb./in.
1.57
No Break
         
Thermal   Methods Units  
Melting Point   DSC °F (°C) 644(340)
Glass Transition Temperature, Tg (onset value)   DSC °F (°C) 289(143)
Melt Flow Index 400 °C/2.16 kg ASTM D1238 g/10 min. 4
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion: <Tg
>Tg
ASTM D696
ASTM D696
10-5 °F-1 2.6
6
Heat Deflection Temperature, 264 psi   ASTM D648 °F (°C) 320(160)
UL Continuous Use Temperature Mechanical
Electrical
    464(240)
500(260)
         
Sterilization   Methods Units  
200 steam cycles at 280 °F short time, 1/8" thick - - No Effect
1000 Mrads gamma radiation   - - No Effect
Chemicals (ethylene oxide, etc.)   - - No Effect
Heat up to 500 °F   - - No Effect
         
Electrical   Methods Units  
Dielectric Strength (50µ film)   ASTM D149 KV/cm 190
Dielectric Constant 50Hz-10kHz, 0-300 °F
50Hz, 392 °F
  - 3.20-3.30
4.50

 

Special Notes: Chemicals which interact with PEEK polymer are not pH dependent; rather, interaction is more determined by other physical properties of the chemical(s) in question. Not recommended for use with nitric acid; sulfuric acid; halogenated acids, such as hydrofluoric, hydrobromic, and hydroiodic acids (hydrochloric acid is approved for most applications); and pure halogenated gases. Additionally, due to a swelling effect, be cautious in using the following solvents with PEEK tubing: methylene chloride, THF, and DMSO.

Perlast®

Perlast

Perlast® Perfluoroelastomer is a special type of rubber material designed to offer the unique chemical resistance of PTFE. It shares with PTFE a polymer backbone consisting of carbon atoms protected by fluorine atoms, making it very inert to chemical attack. As a rubber, therefore, it is resilient, so it doesn't creep or flow but retains sealing force over a long period. Perlast can be used in long-term conditions and has a very low oxygen permeability. It also stretches - aiding installation. For additional information on Perlast, we recommend the White Seal web site.

 

Temperature Range Maximum operating temp: +280 °C (+536 °F)
Minimum operating temp: -35 °C (-31 °F)
Oxygen Permeability N/A
pH Range 0 - 14
Sterilization Techniques Et-0, Gamma irradiation, thermal
Autoclavable? Y

 

Perlast Extended Properties

Physical Properties Unit Methods   Value
Hardness (points) °IRHD ASTM D 1415 (=ISO 48) 69
Tensile Strength MPa ASTM D 412 (=ISO 37) 9.0
Elongation at Break % ASTM D 412 (=ISO 37) 190
100% Modulus MPa ASTM D 412 (=ISO 37) 4.0
         
Compression Set,
Method B:
Unit Methods   Value
24 hours at 200 °C (392 °F) % ASTM D 395 (=ISO 815) 21
         
Heat Resistance: Unit Methods   Value
72 hours at 250 °C (482 °F)   ASTM D 573 (=ISO 188)  
Hardness change (points) °IRHD ASTM D 1415 (=ISO 48) -7
Tensile strength change % ASTM D 412 (=ISO 37) 3.5
Elongation at break change % ASTM D 412 (=ISO 37) +12
         
Low Temperature Properties: Unit Methods   Value
TR10 °C (°F) ASTM D 1329   -12 (-4)

 

FIRE HAZARD: Ignition temperature >400 °C (750 °F).
Special Notes: Thermal decomposition will generate hydrogen fluoride, fluorinated hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and carbonyl fluoride. In the event of fire, fire fighters must wear self-contained breathing apparatus and a protective suit. Extinguish with water, foam, carbon dioxide or dry chemical. Neutralise any refuse from a fire involving perfluoroelastomer with calcium hydroxide solution and wear Neoprene® gloves when handling.

PFA

PFA

PFA is another good, general replacement for PTFE. PFA, while being more expensive than FEP, offers a higher maximum recommended use temperature for more demanding temperature applications. It is also offers less impurities for sensitive fluidics applications.

 

Temperature Range up to 80 °C
Thread Strength Good
Oxygen Permeability 881cc / 100in2 * 24h * atm / mil @ 25 °C
pH Range 0 - 14
Sterilization Techniques Ethylene oxide, thermal
Autoclavable? Y

 

PFA Extended Properties

General   Method Units  
Water Absorption 24 hr. D570 % <0.03
Weather and Chemical Resistance   - - outstanding
Limiting Oxygen Index   D2863 % >93
         
Mechanical   Method Units  
Tensile Strength 23 °C (73 °F)
250 °C (482 °F)
23 °C (73 °F)(yield)
D3307
D3307
D3307
MPa(psi)
MPa(psi)
MPa(psi)
25(3,600)
14(1,800)
13.8(2,000)
Ultimate Elongation 23 °C (73 °F)
250 °C (482 °F)
D790
D790
%
%
300
480
Flexural Modulus 23 °C (73 °F)
250 °C (482 °F)
D3307
D3307
MPa(psi)
MPa(psi)
590(85,000)
55(8,000)
Specific Gravity   D792 - 2.12-2.17
Hardness Durometer   D2240 - D55
MIT Folding Endurance 0.18-0.20mm(.007-.008 in.) D2176 Cycles 15,000
         
Thermal   Method Units  
Nominal Melting Point   DTA-E168 °C (°F) 302-310 (575-590)
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion 21-100 °C
70-212 °F
100-149 °C
212-300 °F
149-208 °C
300-408 °F
D696
D696
D696
D696
D696
D696
mm/mm/ °C
in./in./ °F
mm/mm/ °C
in./in./ °F
mm/mm/ °C
in./in./ °F
14x10-5
7.6x10-5
17x10-5
9.2x10-5
21x10-5
11.5x10-5
Upper Service Temperature   - °C (°F) 260(500)
Flow Rate   D3307
D3307
D3307
g/10 min
g/10 min
g/10 min
12-15(B)
15-18(A)
18-21(D)
         
Electrical   Method Units  
Dielectric Strength Short time, 0.25 mm (0.10 in) D149 kV/mm (V/mil) 80(2,000)
Dielectric Constant 60 - 106 Hz D150 - 2.03
Dissipation Factor 60 - 106 Hz D150 - 0.0001
Volume Resistivity   D-257 ohm-cm 1018

High Purity PFA

High Purity PFA differs from PFA simply in the amount of impurities left behind in the polymer matrix. Already one of the cleanest polymers on the market, PFA still had too many impurities for such industries as the medical and semiconductor industries. For these types of specialized needs, a higher purity form of PFA was developed. Differing only in the level of impurities, High Purity PFA offers all the same benefits of regular PFA.

 

Temperature Range up to 80 °C
Thread Strength Good
Oxygen Permeability 881cc / 100in2 * 24h * atm / mil @ 25 °C
pH Range 0 - 14
Sterilization Techniques Ethylene oxide, gamma irradiation, thermal
Autoclavable? Y

 

PFA, High Purity Extended Properties

General   Methods Units  
Water Absorption 24 hr. D570 % <0.05
Weather and Chemical Resistance   - - outstanding
Limiting Oxygen Index   D2863 % >95
         
Mechanical   Methods Units  
Tensile Strength 23 °C (73 °F)
250 °C (482 °F)
23 °C (73 °F)(yield)
D3307
D3307
D3307
MPa(psi)
MPa(psi)
MPa(psi)
25(3,600)
14(1,800)
13.8(2,000)
Ultimate Elongation 23 °C (73 °F)
250 °C (482 °F)
D3307
D3307
%
%
300
480
Flexural Modulus 23 °C (73 °F)
250 °C (482 °F)
D790
D790
MPa(psi)
MPa(psi)
590(85,000)
55(8,000)
Specific Gravity   D792 - 2.12-2.17
Hardness Durometer   D2240 - D55
MIT Folding Endurance 0.18-0.20mm(.007-.008 in.) D2176 Cycles 15,000
         
Thermal   Methods Units  
Nominal Melting Point   DTA-E168 °C (°F) 302-310 (575-590)
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion 21-100 °C
70-212 °F
100-149 °C
212-300 °F
149-208 °C
300-408 °F
D696
D696
D696
D696
D696
D696
mm/mm/ °C 
in./in./ °F
mm/mm/ °C
in./in./ °F
mm/mm/ °C
in./in./ °F
14x10-5
7.6x10-5
17x10-5
9.2x10-5
21x10-5
11.5x10-5
Upper Service Temperature   - °F / °C 260(500)
         
Electrical   Methods Units  
Dielectric Strength Short time, 0.25 mm (0.10 in) D149 kV/mm (V/mil) 80(2,000)
Dielectric Constant 60 - 106 Hz D150 - 2.03
Dissipation Factor 60 - 106 Hz D150 - 0.0001
Volume Resistivity   D-257 ohm.cm 1018

PK (Polyketone)

PK: A proprietary polymer blend comprised mainly of polyetheretherketone (PEEK). PK demonstrates all of the superior chemical resistance of PEEK (see PEEK above). The proprietary blend will however, allow a fitting to attain a higher pressures while reducing the cold flow properties of pure PEEK. CAUTION: some fittings molded of PK are known to be conductive. Use caution when employing PK fittings in high voltage applications.

 

Temperature Range Temperature limit for PK is 200 °C, 392 °F
Thread Strength Excellent
pH Range 0 - 14
Sterilization Techniques gamma irradiation; ethylene oxide; thermal
Autoclavable? Y

 

PK Extended Properties

General   Methods Units  
Relative Density   ASTM D792 - 1.45
Mold Shrinkage   - mil/in 2-8
         
Mechanical   Methods Units  
Tensile Strength @ 73 °F (yield) ASTM D638 psi 30,000
Elongation at Yield @ 73 °F ASTM D638 (5mm/min) % 1.5
Flexural Modulus: @ 73 °F ASTM D790 psi 2,300,000
Flexural Strength @ 73 °F ASTM D790 psi 44,000
IZOD Impact Strength @ 73 °F
Notched
Unnotched
ASTM D256 ft.-lb./in.
1.2
11
         
Thermal   Methods Units  
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion:   ASTM D696 10-5 °F- 4
Heat Deflection Temperature, 264 psi   ASTM D648 °F (°C) 634(334)

Polyethylene

Polyethylene tubing has good chemical resistance. Take caution when using chlorinated solvents and some cyclic compounds.

 

Temperature Range up to 100 °C
Thread Strength N/A
Oxygen Permeability 500 cc-mil/100in_-24hr-atmcc-mil/100in_-24hr-atm
pH Range 1-10
Sterilization Techniques Gamma irradiation, ethylene oxide
Autoclavable? N

 

Polyethylene Extended Properties

General   Comments Units  
Density   ASTM D792 g/cc 0.92
Melt Flow   1.05kg/190 °C g/10 min. 6.6
Water Absorption 24 hour ASTM D570 % 0.1
Hardness, Shore D   ASTM D2240 - 54
         
Mechanical   Comments Units  
Elongation Break ASTM D638 % 610
Modulus of Elasticity   ASTM D638 GPa(ksi) 1.5(2.2)
Flexural Modulus   ASTM D790 GPa(ksi) 35.3(51.2)
Flexural Yield Strength   ATSM D790 MPa(psi) 11.8(1710)
Izod Impact Strength Notched, room temp. ATSM D256 ft-lb/in 8.5
         
Thermal   Comments Units  
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion linear 20 °C   µm/m- °C 10.1
Deflection Temperature at 0.46 MPa ASTM D648 °C(°F) 45(316)
Maximum Service Temperature Deflection Temp at 1.8 MPa - °C(°F) 158(316)
Vicat Softening Temperature   ASTM D1525 °C(°F) 98(208)

Polypropylene

Polypropylene

Polypropylene is used across many industries as a good, general-use polymer. It offers resistance to many standard chemical solutions across the full pH range, making it a product of choice for many applications. There are chemicals that will interact with polypropylene, either degrading it, discoloring it, or causing it to crack, and as such, it is important to ensure that the chemical solutions being used are compatible with this polymer. Such chemicals include chlorinated and aromatic solutions, as well as some organic solvents.

 

Temperature Range up to 40 °C
Thread Strength Fair
Oxygen Permeability N/A
pH Range 0 - 14
Sterilization Techniques Ethylene oxide
Autoclavable? Y

 

Polypropylene Extended Properties

General   ASTM or UL test Units  
Water Absorption 24 hours
Sat.
ASTM D570
ASTM D570
%
%
0.03
0.2
Density   ASTM D792B g/cc 0.9
Melt Flow Rate 230 °C/2.16kg ASTM D1238 g/10 min. 11
Haze   ASTM D1003A % 10
Hardness, Rockwell R   ASTM D785 - 77
         
Mechanical   ASTM or UL test Units  
Tensile Strength Ultimate ASTM D638 MPa(psi) 30(4,351)
Flexural Modulus GPa ASTM D790A GPa(ksi) 1(145
Impact Strength   ASTM D256A ft-lb/in 1.2
Elongation Yield ATSM D638 % 13
         
Thermal   ASTM or UL test Units  
Heat Deflection Temp at .46 MPa, °C ASTM D648 °F 183
Maximum Continuous Temperature   ASTM D794 °F 220

Polysulfone

Polysulfone

In general, polysulfone is chemically resistant and can be used in many applications. There are some chemicals, however, that should not be used. Primarily, chlorinated organic solutions should be avoided, as should some alcohols and some aromatic hydrocarbons.

 

Temperature Range up to 100 °C
Thread Strength Excellent
Oxygen Permeability 230cc / 100in2 * 24h * atm / mil @ 25 °C
pH Range 0 - 14
Sterilization Techniques  
Autoclavable? Y

 

Polysulfone Extended Properties

General   Comments Units  
Water Absorption 24 hours ASTM D570 % 0.03
Density   ASTM D792 g/cc 1.24
         
Mechanical   Comments Units  
Tensile Strength Yield ASTM D638 psi 10,153
Elongation Break 50 - 100%
Yield
ATSM D638
ATSM D638
%
%
75
6
Modulus of Elasticity GPa ASTM D638 ksi 360
Flexural Modulus GPa ATSM D790 ksi 390
Flexural Yield Strength MPa ATSM D790 ksi 15,374
Impact Strength Izod, J/cm Notched ATSM D256 ft-lb/in 1.3
Tensile Impact Strength kJ/m2 - ft-lb/in2 200
         
Thermal   Comments Units  
Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion 20 °C Tansvers to Flow, µm/m- °C in flow; ASTM E381
ASTM E381
µin/in- °F
µin/in- °F
31
31
Deflection Temp at 1.8 MPa, °C ASTM D648 °F 345
Maximum Continuous Temperature UL Relative Thermal Index, Electrical per UL 746B. Mechanical with impact 140 °C (280 °F); Mechanical without impact 160 °C(320 °F) °F 320
UL RTI Electrical, °C
Mechanical with Impact, °C Mechanical without impact, °C
at 0.51mm
at 0.51mm
at 0.51mm
°F
°F
°F
320
284
284
Flammability UL94 5=V-0; 4=V-1; 3=V-2; 1=HB HB @ 1.47mm HB 1
         
Electrical   Comments Units  
Electrical Resistivity   ASTM D257 ohm-cm 5E+16
Dielectric Constant at 1kHz
Low Frequency, 1kHz
ASTM D150
ASTM D150
-
-
 
Dielectric Strength   ASTM D149 kV/in 432
Dissipation Factor at 1kHz
Low Frequency, 1kHz
ASTM D150
ASTM D150
kHz
kHz
0.0015
0.0015

PPS (Polyphenylene Sulfide)

PPS

PPS (polyphenylene sulfide) is a highly chemical resistant polymer for room temperature and slightly elevated temperature applications. Great care should be taken, however, when using the polymer in elevated temperatures, as studies have shown the polymer to lose much of its chemical resistance properties when the temperature is too high. Additionally, the chemicals that show an effect with PPS are not pH dependent; however it is recommended to investigate specific compatibility prior to using strong acids or bases and some halogenated organic solutions.

 

Temperature Range up to 50 °C
Thread Strength Excellent
Oxygen Permeability N/A
pH Range 0 - 14
Sterilization Techniques  
Autoclavable? Y

 

PPS Extended Properties

General   Comments Units  
Density   ASTM D792 g/cc 1.70
Water Absorption 24 hour immersion - % 0.02
Moisture Absorption at Equilibrium Saturated immersion - % 0.02
Hardness, Rockwell M   ASTM D785 - 94
Hardness, Rockwell R   ASTM D785 - 125
Hardness, Rockwell D   ASTM D2240 - 86
         
Mechanical   Comments Units  
Tensile Strength Ultimate ASTM D638 MPa(psi) 90(13,053)
Elongation Break ASTM D638 % 2
Modulus of Elasticity GPa ASTM D638 725 ksi 5
Flexural Modulus GPa ASTM D790 1000 ksi 6.9
Flexural Yield Strength   ASTM D790 MPa(psi) 165(23,061)
IZOD Impact Strength J/cm ASTM D256 Type A 0.99 ft.-lb./in. 0.53
Compressive Yield Strength   ASTM D256 10% Def MPa(psi) 165(23,061)
Compressive Modulus GPa ASTM D695 1,305 ksi 9
K (wear) Factor 10-10 in3-min/lb-ft-hr PTM55010 - 999
Limiting Pressure Velocity MPa-m/sec PTM55010 3,426 psi-ft/min 0.12
         
Thermal   Comments Units  
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion linear 20 °C, µm/m- °C ASTM E837 (TMA) 25 µin/in- °F 45
Deflection Temperature at 1.8 MPa, °C ASTM D648 489 °F 254
Melting Point °C   ASTM D3418 540 °F 282
Maximum Service Temperature Air, °C Contiuous Service without load 450 °F 232
Thermal Conductivity W/m-K - 2.1 BTU-in/hr-ft2- °F 0.3
Flammability, UL94 (5=V-0; 4=V-1; 3=V-2; 1=HB V-0 UL 94 5 5(V-0)
         
Electrical   Comments Units  
Electrical Resistivity Lower Limit ASTM D257 1E+15 ohm-cm 5(V-0)
Dielectric Strength Short Term ASTM D149(2) 386 kV/in 15.2

Radel® R

Radel

Radel® R (polyphenylsulfone) tubing offers very high burst pressure and good chemical compatibility. This amorphous polymer can withstand repeated autoclave sterilization cycles because of its excellent thermal properties. Our Radel tubing is transparent, making visual monitoring of flow possible in high-pressure tubing. Chemicals that react with Radel are not pH dependent, please consult the chemical compatibility section of the website for more information on specific chemicals.

 

Temperature Range up to 100 °C
Thread Strength N/A
Oxygen Permeability N/A
pH Range 1 - 14
Sterilization Techniques Thermal, gamma irradiation
Autoclavable? Y

 

Radel R Extended Properties

General   Comments Units  
Density   ASTM D792 g/cc 1.29
Melt Flow   1.05kg/190 °C g/10 min 11.5
Water Absorption 24 hour ASTM D570 % 0.37
Water Absorption at Saturation Immersion ASTM D570/ ISO 62 % 1.10
Hardness, Rockwell M   ASTM D785 - 80
Hardness, Rockwell R   ASTM D785 - 120
         
Mechanical   Comments Units  
Tensile Strength Ultimate ASTM D638 MPa(psi) 70(10,100)
Elongation Break ASTM D638 % 60-120
Modulus of Elasticity   ASTM D638 GPa(ksi) 2.4(345)
Flexural Modulus   ASTM D790 GPa(ksi) 2.4(350)
Flexural Yield Strength   ASTM D790 MPa(psi) 106(15,500)
Izod Impact Strength   ASTM D256 J/cm(ft-lb/in) 6.9(13)
  Unnotched ASTM D256   No break
Tensile Impact Strength   ASTM D1822 kJ/m2(ft-lb/in2) 400(190)
Compressive Yield Strength   ASTM D695 MPa(psi) 92(13,400)
Shear Strength   ASTM D732 MPa(psi) 62(9,000)
Poissons Ratio   -   0.42
         
Thermal   Comments Units  
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion linear 20 °C   ppm- °C (ppm- °F) 56(31)
Deflection Temperature at 1.8 MPa ASTM D648 °C(°F) 207(405)
Melting Point   ASTM D3418 °C(°F) 345-400(650-750)
Maximum Service Temperature Deflection Temp at 1.8 MPa - °C(°F) 150(300)
Thermal Conductivity   - BTU-in/hr-ft2- °F 2.4
Flammability Rating, UL94 (5=V-0;4=V-1;3=V-2;1=HB) UL94 mm(in) 0.75(0.030)
         
Electrical   Comments Units  
Electrical Resistivity   ASTM D257 ohm-cm 1E+15
Dielectric Constant at 60 Hz ASTM D150 - 3.4
Dielectric Strength, kV/mm 3.2 mm (0.125 in); Short Time ASTM D149 V/mil 360
Dissipation Factor at 1 MHz ASTM D150 - 0.002

Tefzel® ETFE (Ethylene Tetrafluoroethylene)

Tefzel (ETFE)

Tefzel® is a molecular relative of PTFE, and as such, is highly chemically resistant. It has proven to be an excellent material for sealing surfaces and for applications where aggressive solvents are being used and durable tubing is necessary for the application. Tefzel is also used for threaded products, particularly in our low pressure line of products and adapters. Please note that caution must be taken when using some chlorinated solvents with Tefzel, as they may interact and degrade or swell the polymer slightly.

 

Temperature Range up to 80 °C
Thread Strength Good
Oxygen Permeability 100cc / 100in2 * 24h * atm / mil @ 25 °C
pH Range 0 - 14
Sterilization Techniques Ethylene oxide
Autoclavable? Y

 

Tefzel ETFE (Ethylene TetrafluoroEthylene) Extended Properties

General   Test Method Units  
Water Absorption 24 hr. ASTM D570 % 0.007
Weather and Chemical Resistance   - - Excellent
Limiting Oxygen Index   ASTM D2863 % 30-32
Bulk Density   DuPont g/L 1,300
Flame Rating   UL 94 - V-0
         
Mechanical   Test Method Units  
Tensile Strength 23 °C (73 °F) ASTM D638 MPa(psi) 40(6,000)
Specific Gravity   ASTM D792 - 1.7
Ultimate Elongation 23 °C (73 °F) ASTM D638 % 300
Flexural Modulus 23 °C (73 °F) ASTM D790 MPa(psi) 1,000(145,000)
Impact Strength 23 °C(73 °F) ASTM D256 J/m(ft-lb/in) No Break
Compressive Strength   ASTM D695 MPa(psi) 38(5,500)
Linear Coefficient of Expansion 0-100 °C
32-212 °F
ASTM D696
ASTM D696
mm/mm/ °C
in/in/ °F
12.6 x 10-5
7.0 x 10-5
         
Thermal   Test Method Units  
Nominal Melting Point   ASTM D3418 °C (°F) 255-280(491-536)
Flow Rate   ASTM D3159 g/10 min 11
Upper Service Temperature   UL746 °C (°F) 155(311)
         
Electrical   Test Method Units  
Dielectric Strength 0.25 mm (0.010 in) ASTM D149 kV/mm (V/0.001mil) 70(1,800)
Dielectric Constant 1 MHz, 23 °C(73 °F) ASTM D1531 - 2.5-2.6
Dissipation Factor 1 MHz, 23 °C(73 °F) ASTM D1531 - 0.0054
Volume Resistivity   ASTM D257 Tohm-m (ohm-cm) 1x103 (1x1017)

Titanium

Titanium products were created initially as a biocompatible alternative to stainless steel -- something that did not have ferrous components. While being a metal and therefore offering a higher temperature rating than polymers can offer, titanium does not exhibit the same strong chemical resistance that stainless steel does, and is particularly susceptible to attack by strong acidic or basic solutions. There are many other solvents that will interact with titanium, so it is recommended that a chemical compatibility chart be consulted.

 

Temperature Range up to 250 °C
Thread Strength Excellent
Oxygen Permeability N/A
pH Range 1 - 12
Sterilization Techniques gamma irradiation; ethylene oxide; thermal
Autoclavable? Y

 

Titanium Extended Properties

Titanium: Grade 2 Condition: Annealed
Mechanical - Meets ASTM F67 Methods Units
Tensile Strength - Mpa(ksi) 345(50)
Yield Strength - Mpa(ksi) 275(40)
Elongation min (la) -   20
Composition - Meets ASTM F67 Methods Units
Carbon -   0.10
Nitrogen     0.03
Hydrogen -   0.0125
Iron -   0.3
oxygen     0.25
Titanium -   Balance

TPX® (Polymethylpentene)

TPX

TPX® (polymethylpentene) is used sparingly in the Upchurch Scientific product line. It offers good chemical compatibility across the full pH range. However, it is suspect to attack by halogenated chemicals and a number of organic solutions as well. Additionally, research has shown that, as the operating temperature reaches and exceeds 60 °C, the resistance to chemical attack is lowered considerably.

 

Temperature Range up to 50 °C
Thread Strength Excellent
Oxygen Permeability 206cc / 100in2 * 24h * atm / mil @ 25 °C
pH Range 0 - 14
Sterilization Techniques  
Autoclavable? Y

 

TPX Extended Properties

General   Comments Units  
Density   ASTM D792 g/cc 1.28
Melt Flow   1.05kg/190 °C g/10 min 9
Water Absorption 24 hour ASTM D570 % 0.25
Mold Shrinkage     % 0.5
Water Absorption at Saturation Immersion ASTM D570/ ISO 62 % 1.25
Hardness, Rockwell M   ASTM D785 - 112
Hardness, Rockwell R   ASTM D785 - 125
         
Mechanical   Comments Units  
Tensile Strength Ultimate ASTM D638 MPa(psi) 105(15,228)
Elongation Break ASTM D638 % 80
Modulus of Elasticity   ASTM D638 GPa(ksi) 2.9(420)
Flexural Modulus   ASTM D790 GPa(ksi) 3.3(479)
Flexural Yield Strength   ASTM D790 MPa(psi) 150(21,700)
Izod Impact Strength Notched, at 23 °C ASTM D256 J/cm 0.53
Izod Impact Strength Unnotched, at 23 °C ASTM D256 J/cm 1.34
Compressive Yield Strength   ASTM D695 MPa(psi) 151(22,000)
Shear Strength   ASTM D732 MPa(psi) 103(15,000)
Fatigue Strength Flexural fatigue endurance limit, 50% RH, ASTM D672 MPa(psi) 32(4,641)
Fatigue Strength Flexural fatigue endurance limit, 50% RH, 1E+6 cycles ASTM D672 MPa(psi) 32(4,641)
Poissons Ratio   -   0.35
Coefficient of Friction Dynamic vs. carbon steel, 50mm/s (2in/s)     0.42
         
Thermal   Comments Units  
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion linear 20 °C   µin/in- °F 31
Deflection Temperature at 1.8 MPa ASTM D648 °F(°C) 392(200)
Melting Point   ASTM D3418 °F(°C) 639-798
(337-426)
Thermal Conductivity   - BTU-in/hr-ft2- °F (W/m-K) 0.90(0.22)
Flammability Rating, UL94 (5=V-0;4=V-1;3=V-2;1=HB) UL94 B 1(HB)
         
Electrical   Comments Units  
Electrical Resistivity   ASTM D257 ohm-cm 1E+15
Dielectric Constant at 1MHz ASTM D150 - 3.7
Dielectric Strength, kV/mm 2.3mm (90 mils); Short Time ASTM D149 500 kV/in 19.7
Dissipation Factor at 1 MHz ASTM D150 - 0.005
Arc Resistance   ASTM D495 sec 220

UHMWPE (Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene)

UHMWPE

UHMWPE (ultra high molecular weight polyethylene) is a commonly-used polymer which offers resistance to many chemical solutions, particularly aqueous-based ones. The polymer is durable and ideal for use in many "room temperature" applications. Care should be taken when using anything that is manufactured from UHMWPE in conjunction with some organic solutions as well as chlorinated solvents and nitric acid.

 

Temperature Range up to 50 °C
Thread Strength N/A
Oxygen Permeability N/A
pH Range 0 - 14
Sterilization Techniques  
Autoclavable? Y

 

UHMWPE (Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene) Extended Properties

General   Method Units  
Water Absorption 24 hr. D570 % 0.001
Density lb/in3 (g/cm3) D792 - 0.034 (0.93)
         
Mechanical   Method Units  
Tensile Strength   D638 psi 3,100
Tensile Modulus   D638 psi 125,000
Flexural Modulus   D790 psi 125,000
Compressive Strength   D695 psi 2,000
Hardness Shore D D785 - D62-D66
IZOD Notched Impact D256 ft-lb/in No Break
         
Thermal   Method Units  
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion   D696 105 in/in/ °F 11.1
Heat Deflection Temperature at 66psi D648 °C (°F) 95(203)
Max operating Temperature   - °C (°F) 82(180)
Thermal Conductivity x10-4cal/cm-sec- °C
BTU-in/ft2-hr- °F
C177
C177
°C
°F
10.06
2.92
Flammability Rating   UL94 - H-B
         
Electrical   Method Units  
Dielectric Strength (V/mil) D149 - 900
Dielectric Constant at 50 KHz D150 - 2.3
Dissipation Factor at 50 KHz D150 - 0.0002
Volume Resistivity (ohm-cm) at 50% RH D257 - >5 x 1016

Ultem®

Ultem

Ultem® (polyetherimide) is an amorphous polymer with a high temperature resistance and excellent chemical compatibility. Upchurch Scientific extrudes tubing from this material, that is transparent and exhibits good kind resistance. Ultem meets the requirements for ISO10993, FDA and USP Class VI certification.

 

Temperature Range up to 125 °C
Thread Strength N/A
Oxygen Permeability 37 cc / 100in2 * 24h * atm / mil @ 25 °C
pH Range 1 - 10
Sterilization Techniques Gamma radiation, ethylene oxide, dry heat
Autoclavable? Y

 

Ultem Extended Properties

General   Comments Units  
Density   ASTM D792 g/cc 1.28
Melt Flow   1.05kg/190 °C g/10 min 9
Water Absorption 24 hour ASTM D570 % 0.25
Mold Shrinkage     % 0.5
Water Absorption at Saturation Immersion ASTM D570/ ISO 62 % 1.25
Hardness, Rockwell M   ASTM D785 - 112
Hardness, Rockwell R   ASTM D785 - 125
         
Mechanical   Comments Units  
Tensile Strength Ultimate ASTM D638 MPa(psi) 105(15,228)
Elongation Break ASTM D638 % 80
Modulus of Elasticity   ASTM D638 GPa(ksi) 2.9(420)
Flexural Modulus   ASTM D790 GPa(ksi) 3.3(479)
Flexural Yield Strength   ASTM D790 MPa(psi) 150(21,700)
Izod Impact Strength Notched, at 23 °C ASTM D256 J/cm 0.53
Izod Impact Strength Unnotched, at 23 °C ASTM D256 J/cm 1.34
Compressive Yield Strength   ASTM D695 MPa(psi) 151(22,000)
Shear Strength   ASTM D732 MPa(psi) 103(15,000)
Fatigue Strength Flexural fatigue endurance limit, 50% RH, ASTM D672 MPa(psi) 32(4,641)
Fatigue Strength Flexural fatigue endurance limit, 50% RH, 1E+6 cycles ASTM D672 MPa(psi) 32(4,641)
Poissons Ratio   -   0.35
Coefficient of Friction Dynamic vs. carbon steel, 50mm/s (2in/s)     0.42
         
Thermal   Comments Units  
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion linear 20 °C   µin/in- °F 31
Deflection Temperature at 1.8 MPa ASTM D648 °F(°C) 392(200)
Melting Point   ASTM D3418 °F(°C) 639-798
(337-426)
Thermal Conductivity   - BTU-in/hr-ft2- °F (W/m-K) 0.90(0.22)
Flammability Rating, UL94 (5=V-0;4=V-1;3=V-2;1=HB) UL94 B 1(HB)
         
Electrical   Comments Units  
Electrical Resistivity   ASTM D257 ohm-cm 1E+15
Dielectric Constant at 1MHz ASTM D150 - 3.7
Dielectric Strength, kV/mm 2.3mm (90 mils); Short Time ASTM D149 500 kV/in 19.7
Dissipation Factor at 1 MHz ASTM D150 - 0.005
Arc Resistance   ASTM D495 sec 220

Vespel®

Vespel

Vespel® is a frequently-used polyimide material, often found in use with valves. While often adequate for use in systems where the chemicals do not go out of the pH range of 1 to 10, Vespel is susceptible to alkaline attack. This means that ammonia, hydrazines, amines, and any solution that surpasses pH 10 should be avoided. Also, strong oxidizing agents should be avoided or at least used with caution.

 

Temperature Range up to 200 °C
Thread Strength Excellent
Oxygen Permeability N/A
pH Range 1 - 10
Sterilization Techniques gamma irradiation
Autoclavable? Y

 

Vespel Extended Properties

General   Comments Units  
Water Absorption for 24 hr. immersion ISO 62 % 24
Density   ISO 1183 g/cc 1.43
Mositure Absorption at Equilibrium 50% RH % 1.2
Hardness Rockwell M ISO 2039-2 - 100
         
Mechanical   Comments Units  
Tensile Strength Ultimate ISO 527 MPa(psi) 86(12,473)
Elongation % Break ISO 527 % 75
Modulus of Elasticity GPa ISO 527 in Tension ksi 319
Impact Strength Charpy, J/cm2 ISO 179/1eA ft-lb/in2 1.7
Impact Unnotched Charpy, J/cm2 No break per ISO 179, 1eU ft-lb/in2 4,755
Compressive Yield Strength   at 1%; ISO 604 psi 3,336
         
Thermal   Comments Units  
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion 20 °C, µm/m- °C
100 °C, µm/m- °C
avg value between 23 & 100 °C
avg value between 23 & 150 °C
µin/in- °F
µin/in- °F
25
25
Deflection Temperature at 1.8MPa, °C ISO 75 method A °F 680
Maximum Service Temperature Air, °C
450 °C for short periods
240 °C for 20,000 hours continuous
-
-
-
-
°F
°F
-
842
842
Thermal Conductivity BTU-in/ft2-hr- °F - °F 2.4
oxygen Index   ISO 4589 % 53
Flammability Rating, UL94 5=V-0;4=V-1;3=V-2;1=HB at 1.5 & at 3mm thickness V-0 5
         
Electrical   Comments Units  
Electrical Resistivity   IEC 93 ohm-cm 1E+61
Surface Resistance   IEC 93 ohm 1E+15
Dielectric Constant 1 MHz
Low Frequency, 100 Hz
IEC 250
IEC 250
-
-
3.6
3.6
Dielectric Strength kV/mm IEC 243 kV/in 711
Dissipation Factor 1 MHz
Low Frequency, 100 Hz
IEC 250
IEC 250
-
-
0.003
0.002
 

 

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